PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . (Do you speak English?) I speak a little English. (I speak a little English.) Have you lived here long? (Have you lived here long?) I have lived here two years. Why is automatic fluent speech important? Itʼs important because automatic English speaking is the key to getting results with English. Automatic speaking.
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3 days ago PDF | This study aims to investigate students' rules and practices in how they skipped grammar rules but not the English tenses in speaking. To improve English speaking, the best thing to do is to talk with a native speaker. Download: This blog post is available as a convenient and portable PDF that. Students can both read and listen to English using the English speaking people, whether it be in school, at work, or even at a doctor's office.
In spite of all these benefits the experts in Pakistan are facing the problem of finding experts in assessing spoken skills in English Ahmad, This situation is mainly due to three reasons: insufficient training, lack of public trust on oral assessment and issues of test validity.
The teachers are not properly trained to conduct oral assessments in Pakistan.
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The teachers are either reluctant to test oral ability or lack confidence in the validity of their assessments Knight, The lack of public trust on oral examination makes the situation more complex Bashir, Like other tests spoken skills tests need to ensure seven test qualities namely: reliability, validity, authenticity, inter-activeness, impact, practicality, and absence of bias Akiyama, ; Bilal et al.
The purpose of this study was to assess the development of English speaking skills among prospective teachers undertaking one year teacher education program in the public sector universities of the Punjab, Pakistan. Assessment studies include surveys, educational assessment, activity analysis and trend studies Alam, ; D. Boud, ; Heywood, The present study could be conducted using cross-sectional and longitudinal designs.
Research design is the plan and structure of investigation, which expresses both the structure of the research problem and the plan of investigation used to obtain empirical evidence Cohen et al.
In cross-sectional design data are collected from selected individuals at a single point in time while longitudinal design involves multiple measures over an extended period of time Gay, Keeping the limited time for completion of the study cross-sectional deign was selected. This study offers a snapshot of a single moment in time; it does not consider what happens before or after the snapshot is taken Breakwell et al. Rubrics are of two types: holistic and analytic.
Analytic rubrics are preferred when more accuracy is required Montgomery, Most of the international assessment of speaking skills makes use of analytic rubrics.
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Population and Sample The population was all of the prospective teachers of one year teacher training program of public sector universities of the Punjab, Pakistan. The accessible population was all prospective teachers in the public sector universities of the Punjab who were prospective teachers in spring, The sample for this study consisted of university prospective teachers entry and 75 graduation level from three universities: University of Sargodha, Government College University, Faisalabad and University of the Punjab, Lahore.
The researchers used a multi-stage sampling technique. There were 19 universities in Punjab in the public sector. The universities can further be subdivided into old and new universities. The researchers selected one university from the older universities and two from relatively new universities. The University of Sargodha and Government College University, Faisalabad were selected from new universities and University of the Punjab was selected from older universities.
At the second stage all available prospective teachers of one year teacher education program were selected from the University of Sargodha and Government College University, Faisalabad. In case of University of the Punjab, there were multiple classes of Master of Arts in Education, so two classes one class from each of semester-I and semester-II were randomly selected for data collection.
The sample consisted of predominantly females with few males as there are only a few males registered in Master of Arts in Education in almost all public sector universities in Pakistan. Data collection tools A valid and reliable instrument for data collection is essential Donoghue et al. Usually a researcher has three options about the selection of the data collection tool: tool can be developed, tool can be adapted or tool can be adopted Lisboa et al.
The researchers did not go for the first two options because of monetary, logistic and time constraints. After comparing different available instruments the researchers decided to use the instrument prepared by the Fairfax County.
Pay Attention to Stressed Sounds English uses stresses in words and sentences. Listen to where native speakers place the emphasis when they speak. Try to repeat it the same way to improve English stress in your own speech. Sometimes the placing the stress on the wrong syllable completely changes the word. Learn to hear the difference!
1. Think in English
Sing Along to English Songs Singing along to your favorite English songs will help you become more fluent. Once you can sing along to Taylor Swift and Jason Mraz , you can test your skills with something a bit more difficult: rap! Rap is a great way to practice English because often the words are spoken like regular sentences. However, the rapper uses a stronger rhythm and faster speed. Make speaking easier by learning the different forms of any words you learn.
Knowing the correct way to use a word in any kind of sentence is important. This knowledge will help you while speaking.
Learn Phrases, Not Words An even better idea to improve English is to learn word phrases, not just words. Phrases and expressions can be helpful for sounding more natural when you speak. Learn Your Most Common Sayings Take some time to really notice how you speak in your native language.
What words and phrases do you use the most often?
Learn how to say your most commonly used phrases and words in English. Knowing them in English will help you speak as well in English as you do in your native language. Prepare for Specific Situations Are you learning English speaking for a specific reason? For example, are you learning English so you can get a job in an English-speaking company?
Before you go to a place where you have to speak English, you can practice what you might have to say. Answer the questions a waiter might ask you. Amy: Okay. Curtis: Tailgating is following somebody too close.
So usually you have to leave a car length in between the car in front of you and your car. And I at that point … Amy: Had a very, very bad habit of driving way too close.
Curtis: Right. And in between—or I was in between the emergency ambulance vehicle in front of me and a police car behind me.
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Amy: Oh, it was a ghost car3. Curtis: It was a ghost car.
Amy: Sneaky4. Curtis: Or an unmarked car. Amy: Right. An unmarked car. Curtis: And right away, he turned on his lights that were on his dashboard and the front of his car and his siren.
And he was mad.Some practice comes before you even open your mouth. In monologue each of the prospective teachers was given one minute to write the points on the topic of their own choice.
Navigation English Language and Culture Blog. Amy: Sneaky4. Do whatever it takes to become more comfortable with speaking English.
Findings revealed that items associated with dialogue may be easier for prospective teachers than the same items associated with identical monologue.
The sample for this study consisted of prospective teachers entry and 75 graduation level. Speak slower if you have to.