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Wash color meant painting regions with inks or watercolors.
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Limning meant adding silver and gold leaf to the map to illuminate lettering, heraldic arms, or other decorative elements. The Enlightenment[ edit ] Maps of the Enlightenment period practically universally used copper plate intaglio, having abandoned the fragile, coarse woodcut technology.
Use of map projections evolved, with the double hemisphere being very common and Mercator's presigious navigational projection gradually making more appearances. Due to the paucity of information and the immense difficulty of surveying during the period, mapmakers frequently plagiarized material without giving credit to the original cartographer. This map is a close reproduction of a work by Nicolas de Fer.
By the late 18th century, mapmakers often credited the original publisher with something along the lines of, "After [the original cartographer]" in the map's title or cartouche. It belongs to the so-called plane chart model, where observed latitudes and magnetic directions are plotted directly into the plane, with a constant scale, as if the Earth were a plane Portuguese National Archives of Torre do Tombo, Lisbon.
Mapping can be done with GPS and laser rangefinder directly in the field. Image shows mapping of forest structure position of trees, dead wood and canopy. In cartography, technology has continually changed in order to meet the demands of new generations of mapmakers and map users. The first maps were produced manually, with brushes and parchment; so they varied in quality and were limited in distribution. The advent of magnetic devices, such as the compass and much later, magnetic storage devices, allowed for the creation of far more accurate maps and the ability to store and manipulate them digitally.
Advances in mechanical devices such as the printing press , quadrant and vernier , allowed the mass production of maps and the creation of accurate reproductions from more accurate data. Hartmann Schedel was one of the first cartographers to use the printing press to make maps more widely available. Optical technology, such as the telescope , sextant and other devices that use telescopes, allowed accurate land surveys and allowed mapmakers and navigators to find their latitude by measuring angles to the North Star at night or the Sun at noon.
Advances in photochemical technology, such as the lithographic and photochemical processes , make possible maps with fine details, which do not distort in shape and which resist moisture and wear. This also eliminated the need for engraving, which further speeded up map production. In the 20th century, aerial photography , satellite imagery , and remote sensing provided efficient, precise methods for mapping physical features, such as coastlines, roads, buildings, watersheds, and topography.
The United States Geological Survey has devised multiple new map projections, notably the Space Oblique Mercator for interpreting satellite ground tracks for mapping the surface. The use of satellites and space telescopes now allows researchers to map other planets and moons in outer space. The ability to superimpose spatially located variables onto existing maps created new uses for maps and new industries to explore and exploit these potentials.
See also digital raster graphic. These days most commercial-quality maps are made using software of three main types: CAD , GIS and specialized illustration software.
Spatial information can be stored in a database , from which it can be extracted on demand. These tools lead to increasingly dynamic, interactive maps that can be manipulated digitally. Field-rugged computers , GPS , and laser rangefinders make it possible to create maps directly from measurements made on site.
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This article only references primary sources. Please help improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources. January This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. April Learn how and when to remove this template message There are technical and cultural aspects to producing maps. In this sense, maps can sometimes be said to be biased.
The study of bias, influence, and agenda in making a map is what comprise a map's deconstruction. A central tenet of deconstructionism is that maps have power.
Other assertions are that maps are inherently biased and that we search for metaphor and rhetoric in maps. Popular belief at the time was that this scientific approach to cartography was immune to the social atmosphere.
In this belief European maps must be superior to others, which necessarily employed different map-making skills. Cartographers developed a 'sense of the other' in relation to nonconforming maps. However, to later scholars in the field[ when? This social play on cartographic knowledge "…produces the 'order' of [maps'] features and the 'hierarchies of its practices. The depiction of Africa and the low latitudes in general on the Mercator projection has been interpreted as imperialistic and as symbolic of subjugation due to the diminished proportions of those regions compared to higher latitudes where the European powers were concentrated.
Through this, maps made European commerce in Africa possible by showing potential commercial routes and made natural resource extraction possible by depicting locations of resources.
Such maps also enabled military conquests and made them more efficient, and imperial nations further used them to put their conquests on display.
These same maps were then used to cement territorial claims, such as at the Berlin Conference of — In , Jean B. Relief map Sierra Nevada In understanding basic maps, the field of cartography can be divided into two general categories: general cartography and thematic cartography. General cartography involves those maps that are constructed for a general audience and thus contain a variety of features. General maps exhibit many reference and location systems and often are produced in a series.
Many private mapping companies have also produced thematic map series. Thematic cartography involves maps of specific geographic themes, oriented toward specific audiences. A couple of examples might be a dot map showing corn production in Indiana or a shaded area map of Ohio counties, divided into numerical choropleth classes.
As the volume of geographic data has exploded over the last century, thematic cartography has become increasingly useful and necessary to interpret spatial, cultural and social data.
A third type of map is known as an "orienteering," or special purpose map. This type of map falls somewhere between thematic and general maps.
They combine general map elements with thematic attributes in order to design a map with a specific audience in mind. Oftentimes, the type of audience an orienteering map is made for is in a particular industry or occupation. An example of this kind of map would be a municipal utility map.
Terrain or relief can be shown in a variety of ways see Cartographic relief depiction. In the present era, one of the most widespread and advanced methods used to form topographic maps is to use computer software to generate digital elevation models which show shaded relief. Before such software existed, cartographers had to draw shaded relief by hand. One cartographer who is respected as a master of hand-drawn shaded relief is the Swiss professor Eduard Imhof whose efforts in hill shading were so influential that his method became used around the world despite it being so labor-intensive.
It often disregards scale and detail in the interest of clarity of communicating specific route or relational information. Beck's London Underground map is an iconic example. Although the most widely used map of "The Tube," it preserves little of reality: it varies scale constantly and abruptly, it straightens curved tracks, and it contorts directions.
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The only topography on it is the River Thames , letting the reader know whether a station is north or south of the river. That and the topology of station order and interchanges between train lines are all that is left of the geographic space. Map purpose and selection of information[ edit ] Arthur H.
Robinson , an American cartographer influential in thematic cartography, stated that a map not properly designed "will be a cartographic failure. From the very beginning of mapmaking, maps "have been made for some particular purpose or set of purposes".
The term percipient refers to the person receiving information and was coined by Robinson. This will enhance the user's experience and keep their attention. If the user is unable to identify what is being demonstrated in a reasonable fashion, the map may be regarded as useless.
Making a meaningful map is the ultimate goal. Alan MacEachren explains that a well designed map "is convincing because it implies authenticity". Information richness or a map that is multivariate shows relationships within the map. Showing several variables allows comparison, which adds to the meaningfulness of the map. This also generates hypothesis and stimulates ideas and perhaps further research. In order to convey the message of the map, the creator must design it in a manner which will aid the reader in the overall understanding of its purpose.
The title of a map may provide the "needed link" necessary for communicating that message, but the overall design of the map fosters the manner in which the reader interprets it. Therefore, there are now a huge variety of different styles and types of map — for example, one area which has evolved a specific and recognisable variation are those used by public transport organisations to guide passengers , namely urban rail and metro maps , many of which are loosely based on 45 degree angles as originally perfected by Harry Beck and George Dow.
Main articles: Toponymy and Cartographic labeling Most maps use text to label places and for such things as the map title, legend and other information. Although maps are often made in one specific language, place names often differ between languages. So a map made in English may use the name Germany for that country, while a German map would use Deutschland and a French map Allemagne.
A non-native term for a place is referred to as an exonym. In some cases the correct name is not clear.
For example, the nation of Burma officially changed its name to Myanmar , but many nations do not recognize the ruling junta and continue to use Burma. Sometimes an official name change is resisted in other languages and the older name may remain in common use.
Difficulties arise when transliteration or transcription between writing systems is required. Even in the former case, the exclusive use of an exonym may be unhelpful for the map user. It will not be much use for an English user of a map of Italy to show Livorno only as "Leghorn" when road signs and railway timetables show it as "Livorno". In transliteration, the characters in one script are represented by characters in another.
Systems exist for transliteration of Arabic , but the results may vary. A variety of furniture furniture clip art. Here are a few things you need to pay attention to. It carries the prestige of over 47 years of retail experience. We understand that furniture forms the core of your home, be it in comfort, functionality, or aesthetics.
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Fevicol is used in a generic sense by consumers in India to mean white glue. Recently they have launched Fevicol Design Ideas online, users can search for contractors and interior designers on the website. Woodblock is durable enough to be used many times before defects appear.
Our DIY projects are well thought out interior decorating ideas with easy to follow steps. Free Kid Videos Geo Jr. A central tenet of deconstructionism is that maps have power. Oftentimes, the type of audience an orienteering map is made for is in a particular industry or occupation.
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