automotive wiring, types of terminals, and wiring diagrams. The electrical systems on equipment used by the Navy are designed to perform a variety of functions. document your diagnosis of automotive circuits that have one of wiring diagrams, and the digital multimeter (DMM) for electrical system diagnosis. Like. Automotive Wiring and Electrical Systems is the perfect book for wiring a hot rod from scratch, modifying muscle car e-Book - PDF format What is this? $
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cable. − consumer. Parallel circuit: One terminal of each device is connected to a . It is the stabiliser of voltage for the entire automotive electrical system. 3. automotive systems, basic repair techniques for wiring harnesses and . Jumper wires are used primarily to locate open electrical circuits. Automobile electrical system has gradually evolved over the years and today it . The electrical wiring system of an automobile incorporate different types of.
A bimetallic strip is used in a circuit breaker to control a pair of contacts in the main circuit. An overload current heats and bends the strip, which opens the contacts and temporarily interrupts the circuit. When this is installed in a lighting system, a short circuit causes the light to go off and on repeatedly so that the driver can bring the vehicle to rest safely.
A single fuse of the normal type placed in the lighting system causes the light to go off totally in the event of its failure giving rise to a dangerous situation ; so separate fuses are used for each headlamp. Multiplex Wiring Systems As the vehicle has incorporated more and more electrical system, the wiring harness servicing the electrical equipment has also increased, both in size and complexity.
Since the early s automotive engineers are trying for other methods to switch power to the various circuits around the vehicle, and multiplexing is one such technique. Repeated use of a wire is the main feature of a multiplex wiring system. The techniques is illustrated using a simple example in Fig.
Use of multiplexing to transmit signal information along a single wire.
The four motors A, B, C and D are operated from four switches. Information on the status of each switch is passed by the sending unit, in a predetermined sequence, along just one transmission line called a data line.
The receiving unit decodes the digital data and operates relays or transistor switches, and provides current to the appropriate motor. Since each data is sent many times in every second, the response of the system appears almost instantaneous so far as the driver is concerned, giving a feeling as if the switches were wired directly to the motors.
Unit of competency details
A multiplex system in practice incorporates many sending and receiving units, placed at strategic locations around the vehicle and all connected to the same data bus. U Multiplex wiring harnesses are smaller and simpler, so that there is a saving on eest and weight. H It is easy to have automated manufacture of the harness.
Hi Harness installation on the vehicle assembly track can be much faster. It is also suitable for use in the control of body electronic systems such as windows, sunroof, lights, etc. If data are required to be exchanged at a much faster rate as is the case with engine and transmission management, ABS and traction control electrons , then Class B or Class C bus systems are necessary.
Basic Concepts of CAN. CAN is a high speed serial data bus capable of transferring up to 1 million bits of data per second.
It permits to design vehicle electronic systems using ECUs from different suppliers with a minimum of interconnecting wiring. The CAN requires only one sensor for each measurement variable to supply all systems with this signal. However from safety and reliability considerations, two sensors can be incorporated with CAN for double checking of the same measured parameter. CAN provide the following basic properties : i It is a multi-master system, i.
If data is destroyed by errors during transmission, then it is automatically retransmitted. Defective ECUs are automatically switched off. CAN Bus Operation. CAN uses a common bus line consisting of two parallel wires that can be screened or unscreened, depending upon the application.
The total bus wires up to 40 m in length can be used and up to 30 ECUs can be connected to the bus line using short stub wires of length up to mm Fig. The bus line is terminated at each end with a load resistor, i? Each ECU incorporates a pair of transmitter wires labelled Tx and a pair of receiver wires labelled Rx. The receiver wires are connected to the bus line through a pair of resistors.
Consequently a differential voltage of 2 to 3 V is generated between the two wires of the bus. Each of these circuits consists of the battery, the electrical components, and its switch including the following three wires or cables.
Other types of conductor materials used in automobiles include silver, refers to larger wire gold, aluminum, and tin-plated brass.
Stranded wire is used because it is very flexible and has less resistance than solid wire. Stranded wire This is because electrons tend to flow on the outside surface of conductors. Since there is more means the surface area exposed in a stranded wire each strand has its own surface , there is less resis- conductor is made tance in the stranded wire than in the solid wire Figure The PVC insulation is used of several individual because it can withstand temperature extremes and corrosion.
PVC insulation is also capable of wires that are withstanding battery acid, antifreeze, and gasoline. If data is destroyed by errors during transmission, then it is automatically retransmitted. Defective ECUs are automatically switched off.
Vehicle Circuits and Systems (Automobile)
CAN Bus Operation. CAN uses a common bus line consisting of two parallel wires that can be screened or unscreened, depending upon the application.
The total bus wires up to 40 m in length can be used and up to 30 ECUs can be connected to the bus line using short stub wires of length up to mm Fig. The bus line is terminated at each end with a load resistor, i?
Each ECU incorporates a pair of transmitter wires labelled Tx and a pair of receiver wires labelled Rx. The receiver wires are connected to the bus line through a pair of resistors. Consequently a differential voltage of 2 to 3 V is generated between the two wires of the bus.
Each of these circuits consists of the battery, the electrical components, and its switch including the following three wires or cables. In a more elaborate wiring circuit, one switch controls Fig. Insulated-return circuit. In addition, it may have overload fuses. Earth Return.
All electrical circuits incorporate both a feed and a return conductor between the battery and the component requiring supply of electrical energy.
The vehicle with a metal structure can be used as one of the two conducting paths. This is called as the earth return Fig. A live feed wire cable forms the other conductor. To complete the earth-return path, one end of a short thick cable is bolted to the chassis structure while the other end is attached to one of the battery terminal posts.
The electrical Fig. Earth-return circuit, component is also required to be earthed in a similar way. An earth-return system, therefore, reduces and simplifies the amount of wiring so that it is easy to trace electrical faults.
Basic wiring circuit of vehicle. Insulated Return. Some vehicle application requires a separate insulated-cable system for both the feed and the return conductors. It is also safer because with separate feed and return cables, it is practically impossible for the cable conductors to short even if chafed and touching any of the metal bodywork, as the body is not live since it is not a part of the electrical circuits. From the safety reasons, an insulated return Fig.
The vehicles, such as coaches and double-decker buses use large quantity of plastic panelling. For these vehicles an insulated return is more reliable and safer.
The insulated return off course uses extra cable that makes the overall wiring harness heavier, less flexible, and bulky, consequently increases the cost to some extent. Open Circuit. When a wiring circuit is not continuous so that no current flows, then the system is called open-circuit. This situation may be normal such as when a switch breaks the circuit or it may be unintentional, due to poor connections, partially broken or connected terminals, or fractured or burnt-out wire.
It is usually difficult to find out intermittent unwanted open circuits, which can cause damage to other electrical components. Permanent open circuits are normally easier to find.Open contact Dual filament lamp. It is usually difficult to find out intermittent unwanted open circuits, which can cause damage to other electrical components.
Most wiring diagrams list the appropriate color coding used by the manufacturer. If this solution is not available, it is possible to clean the board by lightly rubbing the surface with an eraser. Steel terminals usually have a tin or lead coating. This wire is called the ballast resistor wire and is located usually between 0. Because the high voltage within the plug wires can create electromagnetic induction, proper wire routing is important to eliminate the possibility of cross-fire.
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